MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY GAPS: AN EXPLANATION BASED ON THE HETEROGENEITY OF MEXICO CENTRAL AND SOUTH FARM HOUSEHOLDS

Ernesto Adair Zepeda Villarreal, Tania Carolina Camacho Villa, Luis Barba Escoto, Santiago López Ridaura

Abstract


Background: Mexico has having since 1940 governmental programs to increase maize productivity without fully achieve their objectives, and one of the critics has been don´t consider the heterogeneity of Mexican farm households cultivating it and their gaps, considering a binomial model of commercial and subsistence agriculture. Productivity gaps have been studied focusing on yield differences between optimal and real conditions. Objective: This paper elaborates on productivity gaps of 3391 maize farm households from the Central and South part of Mexico, taking into account their diversity, adding social and functional elements. Methodology: The variables were divided into structural, functionals and social, and were analyzed by the multivariate method of principal components analysis. Results: Five type were found, with significant differences between them. The major productivity gaps were between Commercial Mechanized farm households and the rest of the types, they have access to better productive assets (6 ). In second place, the Subsistence farm households with women participation, presented the lowest yields (1 ), explained by less productive assets and by social attributes (women and indigenous). Between both types are the other types, with similar assets but social differences: the Low Mechanized farm households cultivate in the tropics using a half modernized farming system ( ), the Semi-commercial farm households with Elder Families (2.5  and Farm households with Diversified Income (2.3 . Implications: This evidenced the inappropriate bimodal agriculture vision persisting in policy designing, because several types of farms can explain the limited historical programs outputs focus on maize productivity. Conclusion: This study concludes indicating that maize productivity in Mexico is not only affected by the processes of agriculture modernization, but also by other social processes.

Keywords


Maize; farm households’ typologies; productivity gaps; heterogeneity

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URN: http://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/urn:ISSN:1870-0462-tsaes.v23i2.3043



Copyright (c) 2020 Ernesto Adair Zepeda Villarreal, Tania Carolina Camacho Villa, Santiago López Ridaura, Luis Barba Escoto

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