Albaluz Ramos Franco


Background. State investments to improve the quality and quantity of water for human consumption require cost-effectiveness, especially in the Latin American and Colombian socioeconomic context. The conceptual framework of water ecosystem services allows decision makers to prioritize areas where monetary resources do generate a real impact on the water supplied to municipal aqueducts. Objective. Determine the areas and activities that should be invested as a priority, to promote two water ES in four municipalities of Boyacá. Methodology. The software RIOS was used in order to generate geographical explicit scenarios to indicate the areas where the municipal government must implement activities that in the short, medium and long term, will guarantee a baseflow at the dry season and the decrease of sediments by erosion. Results. It was identified that the higher altitude wooded areas in the basin, should be the object of agroforestry programs in its multiple expressions. Implications. In the specific case of Togüi, agroforestry does not seem to be the activity that contributes to flow control, possibly because of the natural slopes of the basin. Conclusion. This information can be used as a basis for the development of payment for water ecosystem services schemes (PWS).


Water ecosystem service, state investment, RIOS, agroforestry, PWS

Full Text:



Armenteras, D., Rodríguez, N., Retana, J. and Morales, M., 2011. Understanding deforestation in montane and lowland forests of the Colombian Andes. Regional Environmental Change, 11(3), pp. 693-705.

Armenteras, D., Cabrera, E., Rodríguez, N. and Retana, J., 2013. National and regional determinants of tropical deforestation in Colombia. Regional Environmental Change, 13, pp. 1181-1193.

Armenteras, D. and Rodríguez-Eraso, N., 2014. Dinámicas y Causas de Deforestación en Bosques de Latino América: una Revisión Desde 1990. Colombia Forestal, 17(2), pp. 233-246.

Bonnesoeur, V., Locatelli, B., Guariguata, M. R., Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F., Vanacker, V., Mao, Z., Stokes, A. and Mathez-Stiefel, S. L., 2019. Impacts of forests and forestation on hydrological services in the Andes: A systematic review. Forest Ecology and Management, 433, pp. 569-584.

Borda, C. A., Moreno-Sánchez, R. P. and Wunder, S., 2010. Pagos por Servicios ambientales en marcha: la experiencia en la microcuenca de chaina, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. [pdf] CIFOR. Available at:

Borkey, P., Cassar, A., Meadors, L., Saade, L., Siebentritt, M., Stein, R., Tognetti, C. and Tortajada, C., 2005. Freshwater Ecosystem Services. [pdf] Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Available at:

Brauman, K. A., Daily, G. C., Duarte, T. K. and Mooney, H. A., 2007. The Nature and Value of Ecosystem Services: An Overview Highlighting Hydrologic Services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32(1), pp. 67–98.

Bruijnzeel, L. A. and Hamilton, L. S., 2000. Decision time for cloud forests. [pdf] UNESCO. Available at:

Calder, I. R., 2002. Forests and Hydrological Services: Reconciling public and science perceptions. Land Use and Water Resources Research, 2, pp. 1–12.

Calder, I. and Aylward, B., 2006. Forest and floods: moving to an evidence-based approach to watershed and integrated flood management. Water International, 3(1), pp. 87-99.

Clement, F. and Amezaga, J. M., 2008. Linking reforestation policies with land use change in northern Vietnam: Why local factors matter. Geoforum, 39(1), 265–277.

Congreso de la República de Colombia, 2012. Law 1523 of 2012, por la cual se adopta la política nacional de gestión del riesgo de desastres y se establece el Sistema Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres y se dictan otras disposiciones.

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R. V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton, P. and van den Belt, M., 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387 (15), pp. 253–260.

Corpoboyacá, 2015. Pago por servicios ambientales: Proyecto piloto en el PNR serranía las quinchas. [press release] 18 september 2015. Available at:

Corpoboyacá, 2017. Estudiantes de Pauna le hacen frente a la deforestación. [online] Corpoboyacá. Available at:

Cristeche, E. and Penna, J. A., 2008. Métodos de valoración económica de los servicios ambientales. [pdf] INTA. Available at:

DANE, 2016. 3er Censo Nacional Agropecuario. Colombia: DANE. [pdf] DANE. Available at:

Díaz, S., Demissew, S., Carabias, J., Joly, C., Lonsdale, M., Ash, N., Larigauderie, A., Adhikari, J. R., … and Zlatanova. D., 2015. The IPBES Conceptual Framework – Connecting nature and people. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, pp. 1-16.

DNR., 2007. Vegetation Buffer Strips in Agricultural Areas. Minnesota: Department of Natural Resourses. Available at:

Dorren, L. and Rey, F., 2004. A review of the effect of terracing on erosion. Scape, pp. 97-108.

Esquivel, J., Echeverría, C., Saldaña, A. and Fuentes, R., 2020. High functional diversity of forest ecosystems is linked to high provision of water flow regulation ecosystem service. Ecological Indicators, 115, pp. 106433.

FAO, 2018. Conjunto de Herramientas para la Gestión Forestal Sostenible (GFS): Agroforestería. [online] FAO. Available at:,tipo%20de%20disposici%C3%B3n%20espacial%20y

Franco-Maass, S., Burrola-Aguilar, C., Arana-Gabriel, Y. and García-Almaraz, L. A., 2016. A local knowledge-based approach to predict anthropic harvesting pressure zones of wild edible mushrooms as a tool for forest conservation in Central Mexico. Forest Policy and Economics, 73, pp. 239–250.

Krishnaswamy, J., Bonell, M., Venkatesh, B., Purandara, B. K., Rakesh, K.N., Lele, S., Kiran, M. C., Reddy, V. and Badiger, S., 2013. The groundwater recharge response and hydrologic services of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation: Support for the “infiltration-evapotranspiration trade-off hypothesis”. Journal of Hydrology, 498, pp. 191-209.

García-Romero, H, 2012. Deforestación en Colombia: Retos y Perspectivas. [online] Fedesarrollo. Available at:

Geilfus, F., 2002. 80 Herramientas para el Desarrollo Participativo. [pdf] Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura. Available at:

Germer, S., Neill, C., Krusche, A. V. and Elsenbeer, H., 2010. Influence of land-use change on near-surface hydrological processes: Undisturbedforest to pasture. Journal of Hydrology, 380, pp. 473-480.

Gobernación de Boyacá, 2016. Plan De Desarrollo 2016-2019. Agua, Medio Ambiente Y Gestión Del Riesgo Componente 1 Medio Ambiente. [pdf] Gobernación de Boyacá. Available at:

Gobernación de Boyacá, 2019. 27.000 árboles fueron sembrados en 'Reto Siembra Bicentenario'. [online] Gobernación de Boyacá. Available at:

Gregory, S. and Ashkenas, L., 1990. Field Guide for Riparian Management. [pdf] Willamette National Forest. Available at:

Grizzetti, B., Lanzanova, D., Liquete, C., Reynaud, A. and Cardoso, A. C., 2016. Assessing water ecosystem services for water resource management. Environmental Science and Policy, 61, pp. 194–203.

De Groot, R., Brander, L., van der Ploeg, S, Costanza, R., Bernard, F., Braat, L., Christie, M., Crossman, N., Ghermandi, A., Hein, L., Hussain, S., Kumar, P., McVittie, A., Portela, R., Rodriguez, L. C., ten Brink, P. and van Beukering, P., 2012. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Services, 1, pp. 50-61.

Guo, Y., Peng, C., Zhu, Q., Wang, M., Wang, H., Peng, S. and He, H., 2019. Modelling the impacts of climate and land use changes on soil water erosion: Model applications, limitations and future challenges. Journal of Environmental Management, 250, pp. 109403.

Herrera, L., Pecht, W. and Olivares, F., 1976. Crecimiento urbano de América Látina. [online] CELADE. Available at:

Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi –IGAC-, 2005. Estudio general de suelos y zonificación de tierras del departamento de Boyacá. Bogotá, Colombia: IGAC.

Jacobs, S., Dendoncker, N., Martín-López, B., Barton, D. N., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Boeraeve, F., McGrath, L. F., Vierikko, K., .… and Washbourn, C. L., 2016. A new valuation school: Integrating diverse values of nature in resource and land use decisions. Ecosystem Services, 22, pp. 213–220.

Jónsson, J. Ö. G. and Davíðsdóttir, B., 2016. Classification and valuation of soil ecosystem services. Agricultural Systems, 145, 24–38.

Kaba, J. S., Otu-Nyanteh, A. and Abunyewa, A. A., 2020. The role of shade trees in influencing farmers’ adoption of cocoa agroforestry systems: Insight from semi-deciduous rain forest agroecological zone of Ghana. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 92, 100332.

Larocque, A., 2013. Universal soil loss equation (Usle). Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, 12, 1062.

Le, H. D., Smith, C. and Herbohn, J., 2014. What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines. Global Environmental Change, 24(1), pp. 334–348.

Levia, D., Carlyle-Moses, D. and Tanaka, T., 2011. Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemestry, Synthesis of past research and future directions. Springer.

Ligdi, E. E. and Morgan, R. P. C., 1995. Contour grass strips: a laboratory simulation of their role in soil erosion control. Soil Technology, 8(2), pp. 109–117.

Liu, S., Crossman, N. D., Nolan, M. and Ghirmay, H., 2013. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management. Journal of Environmental Management, 129, pp. 92–102.

de Mello, K., Taniwaki, R. H., Paula, F. R. de, Valente, R. A., Randhir, T. O., Macedo, D. R., Gontijo-Leal, C., Bozetti-Rodriguez, C. and Hughes, R. M., 2020. Multiscale land use impacts on water quality: Assessment, planning, and future perspectives in Brazil. Journal of Environmental Management, 270, pp. 110879.

Mauricio, R. M., Ribeiro, R. S., Paciullo, D. S. C., Cangussú, M. A., Murgueitio, E., Chará, J. and Estrada, M. X. F., 2019. Silvopastoral Systems in Latin America for Biodiversity, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Improvements. Agroecosystem Diversity, pp. 287–297.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC.: Island Press. Available at:

Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, 2012. Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la Biodiversidad y sus Servicios Ecosistémicos (PNGIBSE). [online] Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Available at:

Mira-Pontón, M., 2017. Política Nacional de Pago por Servicios Ambientales – PSA. [pdf] Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible. Available at:

Muñoz-Gómez, F. A., Galicia-Sarmiento, L. and Pérez, E. H., 2018. Agricultura migratoria conductor del cambio de uso del suelo de ecosistemas alto-andinos de Colombia. Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial, 16(1), pp. 15-25.

Nahed-Toral, J., Valdivieso-Pérez, A., Aguilar-Jiménez, R., Cámara-Cordova, J. and Grande-Cano, D., 2013. Silvopastoral systems with traditional management in southeastern Mexico: a prototype of livestock agroforestry for cleaner production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 57, pp. 266–279.

Neary, D., Ice, G. and Jackson, R., 2009. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(10), pp. 2269-2281.

Ni, X., Parajuli, P. B., Ouyang, Y., Dash, P. and Siegert, C., 2021. Assessing land use change impact on stream discharge and stream water quality in an agricultural watershed. Catena, 198, 105055.

Obregon, A., Gehrig-Downie, C., Gradstein, R., Rollenbeck, R. and Bendix, J., 2011. Canopy level fog occurrence in a tropical lowland forest of French Guiana as a prerequisite for high epiphyte diversity. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151(3), pp. 290-300.

Ota, L., Herbohn, J., Gregorio, N. and Harrison, S., 2020. Reforestation and smallholder livelihoods in the humid tropics. Land Use Policy, 92.

Pérez-Arango, J. D. and Mesa-Sánchez, O. J., 2013. Estimación del Factor de Erosividad de la Lluvia en Colombia. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), pp. 1689–1699.

Presidencia de la República de Colombia, [2017]. Decree 2157 of 2017, por medio del cual se adoptan directrices generales para la elaboración del plan de gestión del riesgo de desastres de las entidades públicas y privadas en el marco del artículo 42 de la ley 1523 de 2012.

Primer Nombre, 2020. Iniciativa “Pago por servicios ambientales” en Boyacá busca conservación de páramos. Primer Nombre, [online] 26 August. Available at:,del%20agua%20potable%20del%20pa%C3%ADs

Ramos-Franco, A. and Armenteras-Pascual, D., 2019. Interceptación y escorrentía del bosque altoandino en la reserva forestal protectora “El Malmo”. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 24(1), pp. 97–108.

Ramos-Franco, A. and Herrera-Carrascal, G., 2020. Pago por servicios ambientales en Colombia La alternativa costo-efectiva de conservación. In I. Vargas-Chaves, A. Gómez-Rey y A. Ibáñez-Elam, eds. 2020. Escuela de derecho ambiental. Homenaje a Gloria Amparo Rodríguez. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad del Rosario. pp. 229-254.

Rincón-Ruiz, A., Echeverry-Duque, M., Piñeros-Quiceno, A., Tapia-Caicedo, C., David-Drews, A., Arias-Arévalo, P. and Zuluaga-Guerra, P., 2013. Valoración Integral de la Biodiversidad y los Servicios Ecosistémicos: Aspectos Conceptuales y Metodológicos. [online] Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Availabe at:

Rodríguez-Eraso, N., Armenteras-Pascual, D. and Alumbreros, J. R., 2013. Land use and land cover change in the Colombian Andes: Dynamics and future scenarios. Journal of Land Use Science, 8(2), pp. 154–174.

Rolando, J. L., Turin, C., Ramírez, D. A., Mares, V., Monerris, J. and Quiroz, R., 2017. Key ecosystem services and ecological intensification of agriculture in the tropical high-Andean Puna as affected by land-use and climate changes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 236, pp. 221–233.

Sánchez, L. D., 2021. Desplome en el precio de la panela en la Hoya del río Suárez. Caracol Radio, [online] 20 of February. Available at:

Sánchez-Romero, R., Balvanera, P., Castillo, A., Mora, F., García-Barrios, L. E. and González-Esquivel, C. E., 2021. Management strategies, silvopastoral practices and socioecological drivers in traditional livestock systems in tropical dry forests: An integrated analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 479, pp. 118506.

Steur, G., Verburg, R. W., Wassen, M. J., Teunissen, P. A. and Verweij, P. A., 2021. Exploring relationships between abundance of non-timber forest product species and tropical forest plant diversity. Ecological Indicators, 121, 107202.

Stone, R. P. and Hilborn, D., 2012. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). [pdf] FactSheet. Available at:

Talero-Cabrejo, S. and Salcedo-Silva, E. M., 2020. Aportes para el diseño de esquemas de pagos por servicios ambientales en la cuenca del lago de Tota, Colombia. Apuntes del Cenes, 39(69), pp. 267-298.

Vadell, E., de-Miguel, S. and Pemán, J., 2016. Large-scale reforestation and afforestation policy in Spain: A historical review of its underlying ecological, socioeconomic and political dynamics. Land Use Policy, 55, pp. 37–48.

van Satan II, J. and Pypker, T., 2015. A review and evaluation of forest canopy epiphyte roles in the partitioning and chemical alteration of precipitation. Science of The Total Environment, 536, pp. 813-824.

Vogl, A. L., Dennedy-Frank, P. J., Wolny, S., Johnson, J. A., Hamel, P., Narain, U. and Vaidya, A., 2016a. Managing forest ecosystem services for hydropower production. Environmental Science and Policy, 61, pp. 221–229.

Vogl, A. L., Tallis, H, Douglass, J., Sharp, R., Veiga, F., Benítez, S., León, J., Game, E., Petry, P., Guimerães, J. and Lozano, J. S., 2016b. Sistema de Optimización de Inversión de Recursos (RIOS). [online] Natural Capital Project. Available at:

Vogl, A. L., Bryant, B. P., Hunink, J. E., Wolny, S., Apse, C. and Droogers, P., 2017. Valuing investments in sustainable land management in the Upper Tana River basin, Kenya. Journal of Environmental Management, 195, pp. 78–91.

Vorstius, A. C. and Spray, C. J., 2015. A comparison of ecosystem services mapping tools for their potential to support planning and decision-making on a local scale. Ecosystem Services, 15, pp. 75–83.

World Meteorological Organization, 1992. International conference on water and the environment: development issues for the 21st century, 26-31 January 1992, Dublin, Ireland: the Dublin statement and report of the conference. [online] World Meteorological Organization. Available at:

Zhang, X., Li, P., Li, Z. B., Yu, G. Q. and Li, C., 2018. Effects of precipitation and different distributions of grass strips on runoff and sediment in the loess convex hillslope. Catena, 162, pp. 130–140.

Zocchi, D. M., Piochi, M., Cabrino, G., Fontefrancesco, M. F. and Torri, L., 2020. Linking producers’ and consumers’ perceptions in the valorisation of non-timber forest products: An analysis of Ogiek forest honey. Food Research International, 137, pp. 109417.



Copyright (c) 2022 Albaluz Ramos Franco

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.