SUSTAINABILITY OF COCOA PRODUCTION FARMS IN SANTO DOMINGO DE LOS TSACHILAS, ECUADOR

Vicente Anzules Toala, Elvis Pazmiño Bonilla, Ricardo Borjas Ventura, Leonel Alvarado Huamán, Viviana Castro Cepero, Alberto Julca Otiniano

Abstract


Background. Cocoa is a traditional crop and source of economic income for Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador. Objective. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sustainability of cocoa-producing farms in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador. Methodology. The methodology used to evaluate sustainability was a "Multicriteria Analysis". To obtain information on each of the cocoa farms, a personal survey was conducted with questions related to the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, ecological, sociocultural). Indicators, sub-indicators and quantifiable variables adapted to cocoa cultivation were used to analyze each dimension and general sustainability. Results. In this study, it was found that the number of sustainable farms were different from one locality to another, corresponding to the locality of San Jacinto del Búa, the highest number of sustainable farms. At the province level, almost half of cocoa producers (48%) have sustainable farms, that is, they had the three indicators (IK, IE, ISC) and the general sustainability index (I Gen), with values higher than two. Implications. In the general analysis of sustainability, one can find “critical points”, at the level of the cocoa sector, such as education and economic risk; but at the farm level, it would be the diversity of nutrient production and recycling. The need to work and eliminate these “critical points” is important, since it would allow sustainability to be achieved on farms that have not yet achieved it, and maintain it for those that have already achieved it. However, the sustainability graphs are very illustrative since in all cases, triangles are drawn with the three sides of practically similar size, which suggests a balance between the three dimensions in said system and is the graph that would best represent the idea of sustainability, as it suggests an equal assessment of the three dimensions of sustainability. Conclusions. The sustainability of cocoa-producing farms varies from one place to another and the factors that explain it are also different. The largest number of sustainable farms are found in the town of San Jacinto del Búa; but at the level of the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, less than half of the farms are sustainable. The main “critical points”, at the level of the cocoa sector, are education and economic risk; but at the farm level, it is the diversity of nutrient production and recycling. In the three localities and in the province, sustainability graphs a triangle with three sides of practically similar size, which suggests a balance between the three dimensions, that is, an equal assessment of the three dimensions of sustainability.

Keywords


cocoa; farm; economic sustainability; ecological sustainability; sociocultural sustainability.

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URN: http://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/urn:ISSN:1870-0462-tsaes.v24i3.37203



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