Jesús Rigoberto Molina Maldonado, Rubén Humberto Andueza Noh, Esaú Ruíz Sánchez, Rene Garruña, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez Miceli, Luis Filipe da Conceiςão-Dos Santos


Background. Ardisia compressa Kunth, is a wild species native from tropical evergreen forests of Mexico, it produces fruits with phytochemical, ecological and dietary potencial. Its fruits are appreciated by people from local communities. However, in Mexico there are no studies that allow knowing the state of its phenotypic diversity. Objective. Characterize the morphological diversity of A. compressa populations from Chiapas state, Mexico. Methodology. Ninety individuals of nine wild populations of A. compressa were evaluated using 45 morphological traits (16 qualitative and 29 quantitative). The qualitative data were subjected to descriptive analysis and quantitative data were used in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and finally the qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed simultaneously by means of a multivariate analysis with the Ward-MLM Method. Results. The qualitative traits showed phenotypic variability in the characteristics of leaf and fruit color. The quantitative data showed significant differences (P≤ 0.05) in all traits evaluated. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (UPGMA) grouped the populations into three morphological groups differentiated by the similarity of the morphological traits of the populations and not by their geographical origin. Implications. The results in this study should be considered to implementing strategies of plant production and conservation of A. compressa. Conclusion. A wide phenotypic variability was found organized into three morphological groups defined base on characteristics of tree height, number of fruits, number of flowers and ratio of length to thickness leaf. The quantitative traits allowed us to observe the greatest morphological variability in the populations of A. compressa. 


Phenotype; qualitative; quantitative; multivariate analysis.

Full Text:



Aguilar, P.E. and González, A. A., 2009. Cafeticultura indígena en Yajalón: un escenario al margen del comercio justo. Revista Pueblos y Fronteras Digital, 4(7), pp. 157-186.

Ahammed, N., Gopalaprabhu, R. and Mohan, A., 2019. Ardisia agasthyamalayana (Primulaceae), a new species from the Western Ghats, India. Webbia, 74(1), pp. 51-56.

Angiolini, C., Bonari, G., Frignani, F., Iiriti, G., Nannoni, F., Protano G. and Landi, M., 2015. Ecological patterns of morphological variation in Italian populations of Romulea bulbocodium (Iridaceae). Flora, 214, pp. 1-10.

Brock, M.T, Weinig, C. and Galen, C., 2005. A comparison of phenotypic plasticity in the native dandelion Taraxacum ceratophorum and its invasive congener T. officinale. New Phytologist, 166(1), pp. 173-183.

Crawley, M. J. (2000). Seed predators and plant population dynamics. Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities, 167-182.

Das, S. and Ghosh, A., 2010. Characterization of rice germplasm of West Bengal. Oryza, 47(3), pp. 201-205.

De Freitas Lins Neto, E.M., de Oliveira, I.F., Britto, F.B. and de Albuquerque, U.P., 2013. Traditional knowledge, genetic and morphological diversity in populations of Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae). Genetic resources and crop evolution, 60(4), pp. 389-1406.

Delgado, V.F., Jiménez, A.R. and Paredes-López, O., 2000. Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains—characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 40(3), pp. 173-289.

Demooy, B.E. and Demooy, C.J., 1990. Evaluation of cooking time and quality of seven diverse cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 25(2), pp. 209-212.

Ellison, A.M., Buckley, H.L., Miller, T.E. and Gotelli. N.J., 2004. Morphological variation in Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae): geographic, environmental and taxonomic correlates. American Journal of Botany, 91(11), pp. 1930-1935.

Farreira, T. and Rasband, W., 2012. ImageJ user guide: IJ 1.46 r. National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA,

Franco, J., Crossa, J., Villasenõr, J., Taba, S., and Eberhart, S.A., 1998. Classifying genetic resources by categorical and continuous variables. Crop Science. 38(6), pp. 1688-1696.

Fresnedo, R.J., Segura, S. and Muratalla-Lúa, A., 2011. Morphovariability of capulín (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the central-western region of Mexico from a plant genetic resources perspective. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58(4), pp. 481-495.

Garzón, G.A., 2008. Las antocianinas como colorantes naturales y compuestos bioactivos: revisión. Acta biológica colombiana, 13(3), pp. 27-36.

Gonçalves, B., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Santos, A., Silva, A.P., Bacelar, E., Correia C. and Rosa E., 2006. Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry. Tree Physiology, 26(1), pp. 93-104.

Heredia-Vásquez, J., 2013. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y antioxidantes de polvos nanoestructurados de Ardisia compressa Kunth. Tesis de maestría. Universidad Veracruzana. Jalapa de Enríquez,Veracruz, México, pp. 79.

Idrissi, O., Udupa, S.M., Houasli, C., Keyser, E.D., Van Damme, P. and de Riek, J., 2015. Genetic diversity analysis of Moroccan lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) landraces using Simple Sequence Repeat and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms reveals functional adaptation towards agro-environmental origins. Plant Breeding, 134(3), pp. 322-332.

INAFED, Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal, 2010. Encicopedia de los municipios y delegaciones de México. Estado de Chiapas. 03/2022 (consulado noviembre de 2022).

Jiménez-Rojas, M.I., Martínez-Castillo, J., Potter, D., Dzib, G.R., Ballina-Goméz, H., Latournerie-Moreno, L. and Andueza-Noh, R.H., 2019. Morphological diversity of Huaya India fruits (Melicoccus oliviformis Kunth) in the Maya Lowlands. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 66, pp. 513-522.

Joaquín-Cruz, E., Dueñas, M., García-Cruz, L., Salinas-Moreno, Y., Santos-Buelga, C. and García-Salinas, C., 2015. Anthocyanin and phenolic characterization, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa K.) fruit: A tropical source of natural pigments. Food Research International, 70, pp. 151-157.

Jun, W. and Nian-He, X., 2012. Ardisia crenata complex (Primulaceae) studies using morphological and molecular data. In: J. Mworia, ed Botany. In Tech London Inglaterra. pp. 163-173.

Karuppusamy, S. 2009. A review on trends in production of secondary metabolites from higher plants by in vitro tissue, organ and cell cultures. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(13), pp. 1222-1239.

Khadivi-Khub, A., 2014. Assessment of cultivated cherry germplasm in Iran by multivariate analysis. Trees, 28(3), pp. 669-685.

Kil, M.J., Huh, Y.J., Choi, S.Y., Lim, J.H., Park, S.K. and Shim, M.S., 2010. Effect of Nitrogen Concentration and Feeding Period on Growth and Flowering in Hydroponics of Ardisia pusilla. Journal of Bio-Environment Control, 19(4), pp. 257-265.

Kitajima, K., Fox, A.M., Sato, T. and Nagamatsu, D., 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata. Biological Invasions, 8(7), pp. 1471-1482.

Liang, T., Gan X.G.R., Yu, J., Qu, S., Xie, Q., Shama, R., Bao, M., Su, H., Liu, B., and Borjigidai, A., 2023. Ardisia gigantifolia stapf (Primulaceae): A review of ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical application, and toxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 305, 116079.

Lascurain, M., Avendaño, S., Del Amo, S. and Niembro, A., 2010. Guía de frutos silvestres comestibles en Veracruz. Veracruz, México: Fondo Sectorial para la Investigación, el Desarrollo y la Innovación Forestal, Conafor-Conacyt.

Liu, X., Chen, H., Sun, T., Li, D., Wang, X., Mo, W., Wang, R. and Zhang, S., 2021. Variation in woody leaf anatomical traits along the altitudinal gradient in Taibai Mountain, China. Global Ecology and Conservation, 26, pp. e01523.

Martínez-Blanco, A., Almeraya-Quintero, S.X., Guajardo-Hernández, L.G., Pérez-Hernández, L.M. and Regalado-López, J., 2019. La utilidad de Ardisia compressa Kunth en parcelas cafetaleras. Agro Productividad, 12(9), pp. 41-46.

Morillo, C.A.C., Rodriguez-Fagua, A.P. and Morillo-Coronado, Y., 2019. Morphological Characterization of Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) in the Municipality for Pachavita, Boyacá. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 24(2), pp. 291-298.

Muñoz, M.C. and Ackerman, J.D., 2011. Spatial distribution and performance of native and invasive Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) species in Puerto Rico: the anatomy of an invasion. Biological Invasions, 13(7), pp. 1543-1558.

Nuraliev, M.S., Hu, C.M., Kuznetsov, A.N. and Kuznetsova, S.P., 2020. Ardisia daklakensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Vietnam. Nordic Journal of Botany, 38(12), pp. 1-3.

Omobuwajo, T.O., Sanni, L. A. and Olajide, J. O., 2000. Physical properties of ackee apple sedes (Blighia sapida). Journal of Food Engineering, 45(1), pp. 43-48.

Pascarella, J.B., 1997. Pollination Ecology of Ardisia escallonioides (Myrsinaceae). Castanea, 62(1), pp. 1–7.

Pipoly, J.J. and Ricketson, J.M., 2005. New species and nomenclatural notes in Mesoamerican Ardisia (Myrsinaceae). Novon, 15(1), pp. 190-201.

Popola, J.O., Bello, O.A. and Obembe, O.O., 2016. Phenotypic intraspecific variability among some accessions of Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 10(1), pp. 3681-3693.

Riley, N.A., 1941. Projection sphericity. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 11(2), pp. 94-95.

Sánchez-Hernández, S., Mendoza-Briseño, M.A. and García-Hernández, R.V., 2017. Diversificación de la sombra tradicional de cafetales en Veracruz mediante especies maderables. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Forestales, 8(40), pp. 7-18.

Sánchez-Urdaneta, A.B. and Peña-Valdivia, C.B., 2011. Morphological descriptor for genus Psidium characterization. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad del Zulia, 28(3), pp. 303-343.

Schumacher, E., Kueffer, C., Tobler, M., Gmür, V., Edwards, P.J. and Dietz, H., 2008. Influence of drought and shade on seedling growth of native and invasive trees in the Seychelles. Biotropica, 40(5), pp. 543-549.

Sennhenn, A., Prinz, K., Gebauer, J., Whitbread, A., Jamnadass, R. and Kehlenbeck, K., 2014. Identification of mango (Mangifera indica L.) landraces from Eastern and Central Kenya using a morphological and molecular approach. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61(1), pp. 7-22.

Tao, M.C., 2010. Variation of morphological characters and cluster analysis of Ardisia crenata populations. Journal of Plant Resources and Enviroment, 19(4), pp. 43-49.

Ubiergo-Covarlán, P.A., Rodríguez-Galván, M.G., Zaragoza-Martínez, M.L., Ponce-Díaz, P., Casas, A. and Mariaca Méndez, R., 2020. Agrobiodiversity of edible vegetable in the indigenous territory maya-ch’ol Chiapas, México. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 23, p. 46.

Yang, Q.H., Lan, Q.Y., Yang, H.S., Tan, Y.H. and Ye, W.H., 2011. Germination, desiccation, storage and germination-accelerating pretreatment of Ardisia virens seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 39(2), pp. 327-337.

Yang, Q.H., Ye, W.H., Wang, Z.M. and Yin, X.J., 2009. Seed germination physiology of Ardisia crenata var. bicolor. Seed Science and Technology, 37(2), pp. 291-302.

Yao, X., Goodale, U.M., Li, Z., Huang, Y., Wang, X.F., Cheng, F.Y., Tan, Y.H., Xiao, C.F. and Lan, Q., 2014. Relative importance of seed drying rate, desiccation Tolerance, and cryotolerance for the conservation of Ardisia elliptica, A. brunnescens and A. virens. Cryoletters, 35(3), pp. 162-170.

Zhao, A.L., Chen, X.Y., Zhang, X. and Zhang, D., 2006. Effects of fragmentation of evergreen broad-leaved forests on genetic diversity of Ardisia crenata var. bicolor (Myrsinaceae). Biodiversity & Conservation, 15(4), pp. 1339-1351.

Zhao, J. and Chen, J., 2011. Photosynthesis, growth and foliar herbivory of four Ardisia species (Myrsinaceae). Acta Oecologica, 37(3), pp. 277-283.



Copyright (c) 2023 Jesús Rigoberto Molina Maldonado, Rubén Humberto Andueza Noh, Esaú Ruíz Sánchez, Rene Garruña, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez Miceli, Luis Filipe da Conceiςão-Dos Santos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.