José Córdova-Campos, Pedro G Calle-Ulfe, Erick Suarez-Peña, Sandra Mendez-Farroñan, David Enrique Lindo-Seminario, Savina Gutiérrez Calle, Arturo Morales-Pizarro, Virna Cedeño-Escobar, Eric Mialhe-Matonnier, Carlos Condemarín-Montealegre


Background: The main problem in grapevine cultivation is root-attachment nematodes cause serious yield problems in most crops worldwide. Through their different infection mechanisms these nematodes synthesize and secrete a mixture of protein-based effectors that they use to penetrate the root, migrate and develop into giant root feeding cells in host plants. The use of new molecular tools such as MALDI TOF/TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time-Of-Flight) mass spectrometry and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique have allowed us to know these proteins and genes in different microorganisms. Objective: To characterize the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene from infected root samples and the effector proteins of juvenile (J2) and adult (J4) stage of M. javanica by MALDI TOF/TOF shotgun proteomics dual mass spectrometry. Methodology: Infected roots of grapevine crop were collected to extract fresh galls and J2 of M. javanica, then inoculated on tomato plants. J4 of M. javanica were used for genomic DNA extraction and sequencing at the 18S rRNA gene level. The J2 and J4 stages of M. javanica were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) and sterile distilled water for protein extraction and analysis with MALDI-TOF/TOF. Finally, the sequences obtained were processed with ProteinPilot™ and Protein BLAST software for the identification of effector proteins of M. javanica. Results: The nematode M. javanica was molecularly identified by PCR amplification of the 18S rDNA gene M. javanica with an identity percentage of 98% from infected root samples and by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, effector protein sequences were identified such as: Beta-1,4-endoglucan and polygalaturonase, identified from J2, and expansin B2, CLAVATA3/ESR, Pectate lyase and Chorismato mutase from J4, involved in the different infection processes. In addition, we were able to identify 49 nematode non-effector proteins in both stages related to conserved biological development. Implications: The results indicate the existence of effector proteins related to root gill formation. Conclusions: This study confirms that dual mass spectrometry methodology provides in a rapid and reproducible way a proteomic profile that the galls nematode synthesizes to infect root cells and that can be used in other types of pathogens.


proteomics; nematodes; peptide profiling.

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Copyright (c) 2022 David Enrique Lindo Seminario, José Córdova-Campos1, Pedro G. Calle-Ulfe, Erick Antonio Suarez-Peña1, Carlos Condemarín-Montealegre, Savina Gutiérrez Calle, Arturo Morales, Virna Cedeño-Escobar, Eric Mialhe-Matonnier

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