ACARICIDAL EFFECT OF Pachyrhizus erosus ON Varroa destructor IN Apis mellifera

José Alberto Gío Trujillo, José Luis Cámara Romero, Alejandra Monforte Rodríguez


Background: The main problem of beekeeping activity in Mexico is parasitosis by Varroa destructor, due to its wide distribution and the damage it produces in apiaries, causing mortality in bees and reduction in honey production levels. Therefore, it is essential to develop sanitary control strategies for varroasis, avoiding causing the presence of resistant vectors, harmful damage to bees, beekeepers, consumers or any type of surrounding contamination or in the main products of the hive. Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of Pachyrhizus erosus (jicama) on the mite V. destructor in colonies of Apis mellifera. Methodology: For the obtain of the extract from mature jicama seed, the hot maceration/extraction method (bain-marie) was used, using ethanol 95° G.L (95%) as solvent. A completely random design was developed. randomized with two dilutions of P. erosus (5 and 10%), a negative control (distilled water) and a positive control (Cumavar®), with three repetitions, respectively. The treatments were applied by means of two plastic strips (between frames 6 and 10) impregnated with the corresponding concentrations. Results: The highest count of accumulated mites was presented in the positive control with 386 (128.67±22.74). During the sampling, an initial infestation rate of 4.54±1.64 was determined. On the other hand, the final infestation rate was 2.66±2.69. The effectiveness of the treatments was statistically significant among themselves. The 5 and 10% dilutions of the P. erosus seed extract presented an acaricidal effect with percentages greater than 45% (48.99±15.1 and 59.44±13.57% of effectiveness, respectively). Likewise, the positive control presented the highest percentage, 84.41±14.47. Implications: Trials should be developed with a greater number of experimental units and records with a longer post-application time, with the aim of evaluating their residual and harmful effect that these may have on non-target individuals such as bees. Conclusion: Exploratory data on the acaricidal effect of P. erosus seed on V. destructor and its application as a means of controlling varroa infestation were presented, as a feasible alternative for the development of strategies for the sanitary control of varroa.


Varroa mite; honey bee; Jicama; Plant extract; Toxicity.

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