M. Martinez-Perez, Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco, C.A. Sandoval-Castro, R.H. Santos-Ricalde, A.M. Safwat, Y. Garcia-Hernandez


Background. Rustic birds such as Rhode Island Red are adapted to the tropical environmental conditions. Raising them using free range in the tropics improve meat quality. However, the production cost is high when males are used for meat production, due to their low feed efficiency. Objective. To assess growth performance of Rhode Island Red male chickens as affected by indoor vs. outdoor housing systems between 7 to 14 weeks of age. Methodology. One hundred and twenty male chickens were allotted in two different housing systems: indoors vs. outdoor with acces to a free-range pasture of native plants. The experimental diet in growing stage (7-14 weeks of age) included processed Mucuna pruriens (soaked and cooked) in 15 % of the diet. For data analysis, a generilized linear model was used with repeated measures at different ages, considering effects of treatment, week and the interaction between both. The study of the whole experimental period considered the fixed effect of trial and liveweight at the start of the test as covariable. Results. Week was the most consistent effect, and treatment only affected feed intake, with values of 91.99 vs. 87.54 g/bird/day in indoor vs outdoor, respectively. There was only interaction between treatment and week in weight gain. For the whole period, there were no differences due to the housing systems for the variables under study. Nevertheless, initial live weight affected weight gain and conversion. Implication. Alternative raising systems for rustic birds in the tropics can be an option for small and middle producers, where animal welfare and feed costs improve. Conclusion. The productive behavior in Rhode Island Red male chickens is not modified by the raising system.             


poultry; captivity and free range; processed mucuna.

Full Text:



Abou-Elezz, F.M.K., Sarmiento, L., Santos, R. and Solorio, F., 2011. Nutritional effects of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala and Moringa oleifera leaf meal on Rhode Island Red hens performance. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 45, pp.163-169.

Abou-Elezz, F.M.K., Sarmiento, L., Santos, R. and Solorio, F., 2012. The nutritional effects of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hens egg production and quality. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44(5), pp. 1035-1040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-0037-5

Akure, C.O., Sekoni, A.A., Abeke, F.O., Vantsawa, P.A., Babasanya, B., Olukotun, O. and Ayodele, J.T., 2021. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler finishers fed processed Mucuna pruriens seed meal. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 48(3), pp. 86-92. https://doi.org/10.51791/njap.v48i3.2956

Baas-Osorio, A., Sarmiento-Franco, L., Santos-Ricalde, R. and Segura-Correa, J.C., 2019. Estimation of the requirement of metabolizable energy and crude protein for growing in Rhode Island red chickens, under tropical conditions of southeastern Mexico. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 22(2), pp. 487-497. https://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/ojs/index.php/TSA/article/view/2773/1265

Faustin Evaris, E. F., Sarmiento-Franco, L. and Sandoval-Castro, C.A., 2021. Meat and bone quality of slow-growing male chickens raised with outdoor access in tropical climate. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 98, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2021.103802

Faustin Evaris, E. F., Sarmiento-Franco, L. and Sandoval-Castro, C. 2020. Productive performance and carcass yield of egg type male chickens raised with outdoor access in the tropics. Tropical Animal Health and Production, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02348-w

Jin, S., Yang, L., Zang, H., Xu, Y., Chen, X., Liu, P. and Geng, Z., 2019. Influence of free-range days on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, lymphoid organ indices, and blood biochemistry of Wannan Yellow chickens. Poultry Science, 98, pp. 6602–6610. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez504

Kramer, C.Y., 1956. Extension of multiple range tests to group means with unequal numbers of replications. Biometrics, 12 (3), pp. 307-310. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001469.

Li, Y., Luo, C., Wang, J. and Guo, F., 2017. Effects of different raising systems on growth performance, carcass, and meat quality of medium-growing chickens. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 45(1), pp. 326–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2016.1190735

Masoudi, A. and Azarfar, A., 2017. Comparison of nonlinear models describing growth curves of broiler chickens fed on different levels of corn bran. International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology, 2(1), pp. 34?39. https://doi.org/10.15406/ijawb.2017.02.00012

Mthana, M. S., Gajana, C. S., Moyo, B., Hugo, A., Makhamba, N. and Thabethe, F., 2022. Response in growth performance, physico-chemical properties, and fatty acid composition of broiler meat to different levels of Mucuna pruriens seed meal. Research Square, preprint https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1127078/v1

Najaf, P., Zulkifli, I., Jajuli, N. A., Farjam, A. S., Ramiah, S. K., Amir, A. A., O’Reily, E. and Eckersall, D., 2015. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens. International Journal Biometeorology, 59(11), pp. 1577–1583. https://doi.org/10.1007 /s00484-015-0964-3

NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requeriments of Poultry. National Academy Press. Washington D.C. 155 pp.

Nwaoguikpe, R.N., Braide, W. and Ujowundu, C.O., 2011. The effects of processing on the proximate and phytochemical compositions of Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet beans). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(10), pp. 947-951. https://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjn/2011/947-951.pdf

Safari, A., Ahmadpanah, J., Jafaroghli, M. and Karimi, H., 2021. Comparative study of growth patterns for three Strains of broiler chickens using mathematical models. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 86 (1), pp. 75-82. https://acs.agr.hr/acs/index.php/acs/article/view/1864

Sánchez-Casanova, R., Sarmiento-Franco, L., Phillips, C.J.C. and Zulkifli, I., 2020. Do free-range systems have potential to improve broiler welfare in the tropics? World's Poultry Science Journal, 76(1), pp. 34-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2020.1707389

Sarmiento-Franco, L. and Sánchez-Casanova, R., 2019. Producción de aves con acceso al exterior: contribución a la salud pública y al bienestar animal. Bioagrociencias, 12(1), pp. 42-50. https://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/ojs/index.php/BAC/article/view/3036/1306

Sarmiento-Franco, L., Santos-Ricalde, R., Sandoval-Castro, C.A. and Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., 2021. Contributions of the FMVZ-UADY to the knowledge on feeding pigs, poultry and rabbits with tropical resources. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 24(2), pp. #66. http://dx.doi.org/10.56369/tsaes.3688

Sarmiento-Franco. L., López-Sántiz, F., Santos-Ricalde, R. and Sandoval-Castro, C., 2019. Mucuna pruriens seeds given in broiler diets on growth performance and carcass yield. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios, 6(16), pp. 121-127. https://doi.org/10.19136/era.a6n16.1815

SAS., 2013. Sistema de análisis estadístico, Versión 9.3. Universidad de Nebraska, U.S.A.

Sogunle, O.M., Olaniyi, O.A., Egbeyale, L.T., Akinola, O.S., Shittu, T.A., Abiola, S.S., Ladokun, A.O. and Sobayo, R.A., 2013. Free range and deep litter poultry production systems: effect on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of cockerel chickens. Tropical Animal Health Production, 45(1), pp. 281–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0213-2

Sosnówka-Czajka, E., Skomorucha, I. and Muchacka, R., 2017. Effect of organic production system on the performance and meat quality of two purebred slow-growing chicken breeds. Annals of Animal Science, 17(4), pp. 1197–1213. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2017-0009.

Tong, H.B., Wang, Q., Lu, J., Zou, J.M., Chang, L.L. and Fu, S.Y., 2014. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: Growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index. Poultry Science, 93(8), pp. 1883–1889. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03470

URN: http://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/urn:ISSN:1870-0462-tsaes.v26i2.43120

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.56369/tsaes.4312

Copyright (c) 2023 Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.