Raúl Allende-Molar, Karla Marina Báez-Parra, Edith Salazar-Villa, Indira Rojo-Báez


Background. Trichoderma is a cosmopolitan genus of fungi with beneficial species that help both to improve the plant rhizosphere and combat pathogens in economically important crops. Due to its importance in the agricultural biotechnological field, the morphological and molecular identification of Trichoderma species is of interest; however, currently the information on identification, biocontrol and its applications in agriculture is scattered. Objective. The objective of this review was to carry out an exhaustive analysis on the identification of Trichoderma, as well as an analysis of biocontrol studies and applications of Trichoderma in agriculture in Mexico. Methodology. A bibliographic review of Trichoderma was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Science Direct, NCBI, Google Scholar, Pubmed and USDA. The keywords used were Trichoderma, identification, morphology, molecular, antagonism, biocontrol, agricultural use, agricultural importance, and Mexico. The collection of information on Trichoderma species in Mexico was considered during the period from 2005 to 2022. Results. In Mexico, 42 species reported to date of Trichoderma based on morphological characteristics were found, the main identified species are T. harzianum, T. asperellum and T. viride; according to the ITS barcoding marker and tef1α gene region, 17 species reported to date have been identified at the molecular level. The main species reported are T. asperellum and T. harzianum. Additionally, the most reported species as antagonists are T. asperellum and T. harzianum, the latter being the one that is mostly marketed in biological products. Implications. Currently the species T. asperellum and T. harzianum stand out in identification, biocontrol, and application in agriculture. Conclusions. Morphological identification alone is difficult; recently in Mexico, the identification of Trichoderma species is carried out at an exhaustive level, complementing the morphological identification with molecular identification. At present, reports on the diversity of Trichoderma species have increased in identification, biocontrol, and applications in the agricultural area.


antagonism; biocontrol; identification; Trichoderma.

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